致病機序

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緊急狀況的急救Treatment of emergency conditions in goats

 

o 貧血Anaemia

o 腦灰質軟化病Polioencephalomalacia

¢ 道毒血Enterotoxaemia

o 瘤胃酸症Rumen acidosis

o 低血鈣 Hypocalcaemia

o 妊娠毒血症期酮症Pregnancy toxaemia and  Lactational ketosis

o 泌尿道阻塞Urinary obstruction

o 急性乳腺炎 Acute mastitis

o 鼓脹Bloat

o 難產Dystocia

o 嘔吐Vomiting

 

 

髓樣腎病 Pulpy kidney disease

疑點-腸毒血症是常見的猝死原因

Enterotoxaemia is a common cause of sudden death - questions

o  山羊是突然死亡的?是發現到它死亡?急性腸毒血? Did the goat die suddenly? Was it found dead? Peracute enterotoxaemia?

o  最後發現到它活著的時間? When was it last seen alive?

o  任何的臨床症狀-貧血、下痢、僵直、抽搐、血液流出? Any clinical signs – anaemia, diarrhoea, stiffness, convulsions, blood discharge?

o  山羊的年齡? What age is the goat? 

o  山羊是否免疫疫苗? 注射什麼? 何時注射? Are the goats vaccinated? What with? When?

o  寄生蟲控制方案是? What is the parasite control program?

 

 

爆發的原因 Outbreaks associated with

o  食汙染Clostridium perfringens type D 飼料Clostridium perfringens type D is ingested via contaminated feed 

o  大部分病發於集約式飼養的乳羊 Most outbreaks occur in dairy goats raised intensively

o  超急性、急性、慢性等三種型態 Peracute, acute, chronic forms

o  飼料改變:如鮮綠的飼料 Feed changes eg. Lush green feed

o  突然採食含大量碳水化合物的食物:如穀物,較多未消化的澱粉送到瘤胃及小腸後,會被用來做為細菌繁殖的養分且會產生毒素 Sudden ingestion of carbohydrate-rich food eg. grain, bread – more undigested starch to abomasum  and small intestine to act as substrate for multiplication of bacteria and production of toxin

o  細菌通常藉由糞便排出 Bacteria usually pass in the faeces

o  腸道蠕動會維持細菌族群且毒素量會降低 Peristalsis keeps the bacterial population and toxin levels down

 

 

腸毒血-致病機序Enterotoxaemia – occurs

o  Cl. perfringens type D 的毒素增加小腸黏膜的通透性,因此促進毒素吸收 The epsilon toxin of Cl. perfringens type D increases the permeability of intestinal mucosa and thus facilitates its own absorption

o  毒素:The toxin

l   造成大量黏液性下痢 produces a profuse, mucoid diarrhoea

l   先刺激後抑制中樞神經系統 stimulates then depresses the central nervous system

 

 

臨床症狀Clinical signs

o  可能會發現死亡 May be found dead

o  嚴重的下腹部疼痛-喊叫Severe abdominal pain  crying

o  山羊的主要臨床症狀是大量的腹瀉-軟便-水狀且很多黏液Main clinical sign in goats is profuse diarrhoea  soft faeces  watery, mucous

o  脫水 Dehydration

o  12天內死亡 Death within 1 to 2 days

o  神經症狀不常出現 Nervous signs not common

描述: Enterotoxaemia  Goat 12.jpg

描述: Enterotoxaemia Goat 10.jpg